The Akkadian Empire of Sargon the Great of Akkad spanned the Four Quarters of the world. One of the four quarters of his empire was Assyria, the region encompassing northern Mesopotamia on the banks of Tigris river with Nineveh and Ashur being its most prominent cities. Assyria became independent of the Akkadian rule sometime in the middle of 22nd century BC and remained relatively independent except brief span of foreign domination till about 605 BCE when they were finally conquered and assimilated by Cyaxares the great of Media. Assyria was a power to reckon with in the known world for almost 1800 years with periods wherein it was the dominant force in the world. And I am sure very few on this planet would have heard about them.
The Assyrian empire reached its peak under the rule of Tilath Pileser III in the eight century BCE (745 – 727 BCE). In a palace coup, Tilath Pileser III, murdered the existing royal family and crowned himself the king of Assyria. Tilath Pileser III turned his attention to Babylon in the south first. This was followed by conquest of Urartu (Modern Armenia), Medes and Persia (Modern Iran), Hittites and Syrians (Modern Turkey and Syria) and Northern Israel (Modern Israel). Under Tilath Pileser III, the Assyrians conquered most of the world known to them.
Deportation of native population was one of the tools of subjugation. Thus under Tilath Pileser III and his son Shalmaneser V, the population of Northern kingdom of Israel was deported thus leading to the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel.
Innovations in science of warfare
Another reform that was introduced by Tilath Pileser III was the concept of standing army. Traditionally, the armies were conscript armies that fought only during the summer months when the agricultural work was less or when there was an external threat. The conscript armies were little more than farmers with weapons. Tilath Pileser III instead created a standing army that could fight and train year around. The armies lived off the land and were paid by the spoils of the conquests. The standing army enabled campaigns of conquest and required campaigns for their existence. The core of the army was composed of Heavy Infantry, Cavalry and Chariots taken from the native Assyria. There were auxiliaries composed of recruits from the conquered territories. Mercenaries were also part of the army. Assyrians used iron weapons whereas many of their foes still used bronze weapons. The Assyrians built good roads in their empire to facilitate quick movement of troops. Torture and fear was another tool used by the Assyrians to demoralize their enemies.
The title of this post is taken from an eponymous book by H W F Saggs.